|Rick Scott, Senator-elect of Florida. Carlos Vecchio, Venezuelan opposition leader. Political activity, elections November 2018.|
Since 1878, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela has been an oil producer. Between 1929 and 1950, it was the largest exporter in the world market. In 1960 the Republic promoted the Organization of Petroleum Producing Countries (OPEC), to maintain its leadership in the sector and protect its interests.
The Venezuelan oil industry has generated billions of dollars, which boosted the country's urban development during the administrations General Marcos Pérez Jiménez (1952-1958), Carlos Andrés Pérez (1974-1979), Rafael Caldera (1969- 1974, 1994-1999).
However, much of these riches were squandered on corruption, with the abuses of transnational oil companies, clandestine extraction of fuels, concessions for bribery, and entrenched mafias with the euphemism of meritocracy, in Petróleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA).
This brought the emergence of a minor, but powerful oligarchy, together with prosperous indviduals of the middle class, composed of professionals, technicians and skilled workers, who lend their knowledge to the oil industry. As well as, Spanish, Portuguese and Italian immigrants, who took advantage of the oil boom of the "Saudi Venezuela", installing small and large industries, stores, etc. Classes that imposed their own rules of the game, to the detriment of the immense majority of the poor. This oligarchy, together with this middle class, has nothing to envy to its peers, the great industrialized countries, for its high level of education and purchasing power.
This class, treat their illnesses, vacation, and do university studies in the United States, being Florida its favorite place, for the climate and proximity. However, from 1999, with the rise of Hugo Chávez Frías to the Presidency, with his discourse of redemption, in favor of impoverished majorities, causes that those sectors opted to permanently reside in the United States. It transformed into a Massive process as of 2003, as a result of the dismissal of the leadership and workers of PDVSA, following the coup attempt and the 2002 oil strike, to force the fall of President Chávez.